Surviving History

ADVENTURE, WAR, MURDER, SLAVERY, ESPIONAGE: from the internationally bestselling author of Nathaniel's Nutmeg and eight other history books. New post each Tuesday.

Please join me on Facebook and Twitter And do visit my website:

Tuesday, April 17, 2012


It was three minutes past two in the morning: 28 April, 1944.
Omaha Beach, 1944. Slapton Sands was nearly
as dangerous
A flotilla of American ships was approaching Slapton Sands on the Devon coast, a crucial practice exercise in advance of the D-Day landings.
Exercise Tiger was a 300-vessel, 30,000 men dress rehearsal for the biggest amphibious landing in history. It would enable Allied commanders to fine-tune their Normandy battle plan.
Angelo Crapanzano one of those involved in the operation. He was in the engine room of his vessel, named LST 507, when it was unexpectedly rocked by a tremendous explosion.
LST 289: a wreck, but she didn't sink
‘I got this sensation of flying up, back, and when I came down I must have bumped my head someplace and must have been out for a few seconds, because I felt cold on my legs,’ he later recalled.
As he recovered consciousness, he realised the ship had been hit by a torpedo. A German naval squadron had encountered the fleet by chance and immediately opened fire.
 ‘The ship was burning,’ said Crapanzano. ‘[It] was split in half … fire went from the bow all the way back to the wheelhouse.’
The sea also was on fire, because the fuel tanks had ruptured and poured oil into the water.
Slapton: just like Normandy
LST 507 was not the only ship to be hit. Crapanzano witnessed another landing ship, LST 531, being attacked. She sank in ten minutes, killing almost everyone on board. A third vessel also burst into flames, another victim of the German ambush.
By about 2.20am, the captain of Crapanzano’s ship realised that she was fatally damaged. ‘The tank deck was burning fiercely…’ recalled Crapanzano, ‘It [was] just like a gas jet stove. And all the heat going up to the top deck.’
Crapanzano braced himself for the 40-foot jump into the sea, hitting the water at high speed and plunging beneath the surface. ‘It was frigid. It was like unbelievable, unbelievable cold.’
On the day of the practice, they came under heavy fire
But he didn’t think of the cold for long: he was too busy trying to escape the burning fuel on the water’s surface.
Of the 12 life rafts on the LST, only one had been lowered into the water. It was completely burned, but Crapanzano and 10 others managed to cling to it. They desperately kicked themselves away from the ship so as not to get sucked under when it sank.
Crapanzano witnessed scenes that would haunt him for years. ‘I saw bodies with arms off, heads off, heads split open, you wouldn’t believe what the hell goes on.’
As he flailed around in the water, he was struck by the scale of the catastrophe. Nine German E-boats had struck the Allied fleet as it headed for Slapton Sands. They had attacked hard and fast. Three LSTs were totally crippled and a fourth was badly damaged by friendly fire. The E-boats had got away before the Allies could return fire.
Survivors from LST 507
A staggering 638 servicemen were killed in the sudden attack. Yet the Allied landing operation was not abandoned. Instead, the surviving ships pressed on at full speed towards Slapton Sands, leaving the dead and dying in the water.
The beach landings were to prove the setting for the day’s second tragedy. The Supreme Allied Commander, General Eisenhower, had ordered that real ammunition be used, so that men would experience actual battlefield conditions. It was a disastrous decision, for the entire exercise was miss-timed. The British cruiser, HMS Hawkins, was shelling the beach as the soldiers stormed ashore, killing a further 308 men.
Some were not so lucky
While the practice landings were taking place amidst scenes of carnage, Crapanzano was still struggling to keep alive in the icy water. He was acutely aware of the dangers of hypothermia and tried to keep up the spirits of the 10 men clinging to the raft. 
‘I kept saying to them, ‘Don’t fall asleep, whatever you do. If you fall asleep you’re dead.’
But one by one they slid into unconsciousness. Soon Crapanzano and one other man were the only two left.
D Day: this time it's for real
They’d been in the water for four-and-a-half hours when Crapanzano noticed a light.
‘I see this light, going up and down, and it seems to be getting bigger. I immediately assume that help is coming.’
Help was indeed at hand. The light came from LST 515, one of the ships that had belatedly  returned to sea to search for survivors. The crew were scanning the water when they spotted Crapanzano’s head. At first they thought it was another corpse, but then one of the men saw it move. Crapanzano was still alive.
At last, a memorial
He was plucked from the sea, wrapped in blankets and eventually transferred to a Dorset hospital where he made a full recovery.
Only now did he learn the full extent of the Slapton Sands disaster: Exercise Tiger had cost the lives of 946 American servicemen.
All who had been involved in the disaster were sworn to secrecy. It was vital that the Germans knew nothing of the practice landing. The massive loss of life was also highly embarrassing for the Allied high command, who wanted to keep it under wraps.
And so it remained a forgotten episode of the war for many years.
Not until four decades later - in 1984 - was a memorial finally erected in memory of the men who lost their lives in the practice landings for D Day.

Russian Roulette is now published in the USA. Available for order at amazonbarnes&noble and all good independent publishers.  

With this marvellous, meticulously researched and truly ground-breaking account of British spies working in Lenin's stripling Soviet Union, Giles Milton - with his best book so far - reminds us of a time when the spying game was dangerous, fun and - dare one say it - even cool.' Simon Winchester, author of The Men who United the States and The Professor and the Madman


  1. My father participated in this debacle. Until the end of his life, he remained bitter about the loss of some of his comrades from drowning. There was an American Colonel responsible for many deaths that might have been avoided. This martinet insisted that the men keep all of their heavy gear on despite the rough seas. The flotation devices were worthless, and actually added more weight. My dad saw men go into the water and "sink like stones". Even then, this Colonel ordered that the gear remain on. This resulted in many needless deaths. My father told me that there was indeed an organized cover up of this mess, and he resented it greatly. The Colonel, whose name I know, was protected by the Army since they did not want any publicity about the matter. He was later awarded some medals, after D-Day, but was despised by the men. His family, no doubt, believes to this day that he was a hero of that war. Wrong!

    1. I think it's your duty to reveal the name of the colonel! There were many slimeball Americans in charge of our troops -- one of the most famous (and most-hated by legion upon legion of his "boys" was Dickless MacArthur (my nickname for him, although I'm sure someone came up with it way before me).

      That scum was almost personally responsible for the Bataan death march, among many, many other failures that cost the lives of thousands of our brave men.

      You would be doing us all a favor -- even the family of the Colonel a favor -- by revealing the name of the man who sent these poor boys to their watery graves.

      If not you, I'm sure Mr. Milton would know exactly to whom you are referring. Thanks for your poignant comment. I'd never heard of this debacle. They did a great job of covering it up.

    2. Thanks for these comments - and do keep any stories coming, especially from any veterans who are still alive. I don't know the name of the colonel, alas. If you feel able to reveal his identity, please do so! Giles

    3. Ladies, Gentlemen, I tracked this down on the Internet. I can't provide the link because it won't copy correctly, but Google the following and it should show up:

      DT,•-. - Defense Technical Information Center

      It's some kind of military report made in 1984. Here are some cogent passages:

      Although casualties are expected in such operation, the true tragedy of Operation Tiger was that the British knew the E-boats were in the area and no one informed either Skahill or the Azalea. Leatham reported to the Admiralty shortly after the attack that the Qnslow, a British destroyer patrolling off Portland Bill roughly fifteen miles from the attack, had sighted an E-boat on a northerly course at 0011.

      Leatham also noted that his command knew at 0200 of three groups of E-boats cruising ten to twenty miles south-southwest of Portland Bill and searching to the northwest. From this data, Leatham should have been that convoys sailing for Tiger were in danger. If he had done nothing else, he should have informed Moon that German warships were approaching his operating area. Moon could have either changed the convoy route or sailed any number of his fire support ships to meet the German attack. Leatham had made an agreement with Hall in January that he regarded the American admirals "in exactly the same light as any British flag officer in command of a British force operating with my command." More importantly, he added "Should I have any information of enemy attack by E-boat, submarine, or air, it will be passed to you to take such action as you may think fit."

      Even with such an agreement, information passed slowly from the Home Commands to the Americans relying on their screening. Once the vessels were at sea information ceased to flow between the convoys and their escorts because one did not have the radio frequencies the other was monitoring. Therefore, the convoys only communicated with the Assault Force Commander and the escorts received all their orders from the Home Commands. Kirk also criticized the British system of endowing their Home Commands with total responsibility for the screening of Moon's forces because that system not only hindered communication, but Kirk added that it resulted in only two escorts being allotted for screening of the convoy to seaward.

    4. Sorry, Google this instead:

      It's funny -- I came to this page just now and read the first comment and was about to reply -- until I saw that *I* replied more than three years ago! I have no recollection whatsoever.


      Giles, did you know that your latest book is on Scribd -- but none of your others are? Do you get paid by Scribd?

  2. nice posting.. thanks for sharing.